1.3 Types of CNC Machining
CNC Lathe Machine
CNC refers to the use of computer computing and control of the operation of the machine, through the calculation of programming to determine the direction and amplitude of the machine, most of the programming language used is G code, which can complete the lathe process quickly and accurately.
The lathe is simply a rotary rotating work piece, and the rotary cutter is used as the main working machine. The forming parts are mostly round rods or round tubes, boring holes, car screw patterns, and teeth. Car bar and pipe, with some drill arm chucks, can also do some simple drilling work; the finished products are mostly screw, internal and external teeth, shaft or tube kit, ring and other round processing. With traditional lathes and high-speed lathes, or large CNC lathes are common tool machines, as well as multi-axis lathes, hexagonal lathes, and other special-purpose lathes. CNC lathes have greatly improved their efficiency and precision compared to traditional lathe processes.
CNC Milling Machine
Traditional milling machine, the spindle is equipped with a tool holder, can replace different milling tools, and the fixed axis rotates. The rotation speed can be adjusted and the work piece can be moved up and down to fix the bed base. The bed can be moved by three axes, left and right, front and rear, and on the bed. Milling, drilling and other work, cantilever milling machines are mainly small, while large are mainly gantry milling machines.
The CNC milling machine calculates the programming by G code only through the calculation, and can control the process operation of the milling machine through the XYZ three-axis. CNC milling machines can also be easily divided into vertical milling machines or horizontal milling machines.
CNC Plasma Cutting Machine
CNC uses ceramic torches to cut materials and is often used to cut steel and other metals. In this process, a gas (such as compressed air) is ejected from the nozzle at a high speed, and an electric arc is simultaneously generated from the nozzle to the surface to be cut, and some gases are converted into plasma. The plasma is hot enough to melt the material being cut and moves fast enough to blow away the molten metal from the slit.
The plasma cutting process involves cutting the material with plasma burning, the laser cutting machine directs the high power laser through the optics, and focuses the output beam to cut the material. A typical commercial laser cutting machine will operate through a CNC (computer numerical control) system. Three main types of laser cutting machines are commonly used: gas lasers, solid state lasers, and plasma cutters.
CNC Discharge Machine
Electrical Discharge Machining, or simply EDM, involves the use of electrical discharge or activation to create a particular shape within a particular material. The material is discharged from a particular workpiece by repeating the electrical release process between the two anodes. These anodes are isolated by a dielectric liquid that periodically receives a voltage.
In other words, EDM is a method of cutting holes, pockets and other shapes into hardened steel and imparting a surface texture to the internal cavity of the mold. The sacrificial electrode in the electrolyte bath releases a high power spark to erode very hard materials. This method is usually used to create square holes. With a wire EDM machine, a wire can be fed continuously between two spools. After charging, it cuts through hardened tool steel quickly and accurately.